Deadly Force: Post Ferguson Policing

Dr. Jameca Falconer

Jameca Falconer, Ph.D., Director of Counseling and Psychological Services | Logan University

Darren Wilson’s account of what happened on the evening of August 9, 2014 has been in question from the very beginning. He has said that he was in his police SUV on Aug. 9 when Michael Brown Jr., standing outside, struggled with him through the vehicle window and caused Wilson’s gun to fire twice. Brown was struck at least once in the hand, and ran. Wilson gave chase, and Brown turned back. Wilson then shot him multiple times, explaining later that he feared for his life.

Had Wilson been trained in a different manner, both he and Michael Brown Jr. would have escaped the situation alive. Wilson could have been trained to do something different to allow him to apprehend Michael Brown without putting himself in a situation that made him feel deadly force was the only safe response. The type of police training that involves officers exercising multiple strategies of problem solving and retreat is called “tactical retreat.” One of the options for Darren Wilson on that day could have been to step on the gas and drive away from the encounter, while keeping Brown in sight and waiting for backup. If we can train police officers to avoid putting themselves in danger, you will see them use less force to get themselves out of danger.

A Justice Department investigation opened after Brown’s shooting has found routine patterns and practices of racism in Ferguson, including the excessive use of force and unjustified arrests. Ferguson, Missouri is one of the municipalities that surround the city of Saint Louis, Missouri. Many of the patterns of excessive force and discrimination are reflected in neighboring municipalities and across the Saint Louis metropolitan area.

Most of the “shoot first and ask questions later” police behavior can be traced back to police training in the academy. In the academy, the concept of officer safety is heavily emphasized. Rookie officers are taught what is widely known as the “first rule of law enforcement”: An officer’s main goal every day is to go home at the end of their shift. But cops live in a hostile world. They learn that every encounter, every individual is a potential threat. It is how they react to the potential threats that have caused uproar in urban communities.

Police Training in the academy and beyond needs to compensate for the unconscious racial biases that lead officers to perceive a greater threat from Black and Brown men than from others. Officers are not unique in that regard; implicit racial bias is depressingly common in society. But it is of special concern in the context of policing. Because officers use more force when they perceive a greater threat, unconscious bias can lead officers to react more aggressively when confronting Black and Brown men than they would when confronting others in otherwise identical situations. As we’ve seen too many times, the results are beyond tragic. Although it may be impossible to completely eliminate every aspect of unconscious bias, more sophisticated training could lead to more precise threat identifications, correcting for racial bias that officers may not even be aware of.

The Ferguson Commission, formed after the shooting death of Michael Brown, released recommendations for training police officers to avoid deadly confrontations. The commission called for training in tactics, anti-bias and officer wellness. Part of their recommendations directly relate to services typically provided by psychologists. Training that would include dealing with those with behavioral or mental issues, how to give verbal commands, implicit bias and stereotypes, officer wellness, stress indicators, and coping techniques are all areas that we as psychologists are skilled in. This is an opportunity for psychologists to be a part of the solution as it relates to violence toward Black and Brown individuals.

Police reform requires more than changes to training, of course. The policing mission needs to be focused on keeping communities safe and free from fear—including fear of officers themselves. There are profound racial tensions in law enforcement that will only be healed through a long-term, sustained commitment to cooperative policing and community engagement. I urge psychologists-especially those in close proximity to urban communities- to become involved in these types of efforts.

Black (Girls’) Lives Matter


Danice Brown, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Counseling Psychology Graduate Program, Towson University

Black families and communities have the critical task of preparing Black youth and young adults for the realities of racial hostility and inequality perpetuated in interpersonal, institutional, and societal arenas. That task is accomplished largely through racial socialization, a process through which Black families attempt to raise emotionally healthy children, with a positive self-concept and esteem, in environments that may be racially oppressive and hostile. Psychologists have encouraged the use of such strategies among families of color and have advocated for incorporation of this process in therapeutic work with Black families and individuals as a strength-based approach to psychotherapy. While decades of psychological research has documented and detailed the racial socialization process among Black families, the recent deaths of young Black men at the hands of law enforcement officers created a larger forum for a discourse of the ways that families prepare Black youth for racial injustice. However, the current climate has also highlighted the lack of conversation regarding the racial injustice faced by Black girls and women.

As the events surrounding the death of Michael Brown began to unfold, the nation soon learned many of the messages that Black families gave to Black boys about racial barriers and injustice, the automatic negative bias their sons face, and parents’ fears about the safety of their sons when interacting with police. This event seemed to serve as a catalyst for a larger discussion about the racial experiences of Black men and boys in the United States. Thousands have gathered for rallies in honor of Michael Brown, Eric Gardner, and more recently Freddie Gray.

On April 22, 2015 a rally was held in New York City in remembrance of Rekia Boyd, as well as the other Black women and girls who have been killed by police. Unlike the large crowds that gathered to discuss the racial injustice that impacted Black boys, a small crowd of approximately 100 people attended. This may reflect the lack of conversations happening in larger society and possibly within Black communities regarding the racial injustice faced by Black women and girls.

In a recently published study examining the socialization practices of Black parents following the death of Trayvon Martin, Anita Thomas and Sha’kema Blackmon found that approximately 86% of the parents in the study reported that they were more concerned for the safety of boys than girls. Parents felt that Black boys were more likely to be the targets of racism than girls and were more likely to face fear based stereotypes depicting them as criminals and gang members. In contrast, those parents who were worried about girls were more concerned about aspects of their self-esteem, dating options, and the importance of them maintaining independence.

However, with the deaths of Rekia Boyd (age 22), Tanisha Anderson (age 37), Aiyanna Jones (age 7), and several other Black women and girls, one could argue for the necessity of more conversations regarding the importance of preparing Black girls for the ways in which they may face racial inequality and injustice. A recent African American Policy Forum (AAPF) report lead by Kimberle` Williams Crenshaw (Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced, and Underprotected) described the role of racial inequality in the lives of Black girls and the complexity of their intersecting racial and gender related oppression. One of the major findings indicated that Black girls were often suspended, expelled, or prosecuted when involved in school conflicts as opposed to other resolutions being sought. Yet, concerns regarding the punitive treatment of Black girls are not often included in discussions of the school to prison pipeline.

The AAPF report recommended the inclusion of Black girls in research, advocacy, and policy discussions addressing racial injustice and inequality. Psychologists may have an important role in working with families, individuals, and communities to understand and address oppression among Black females. Further research is needed exploring the psychological ramifications of the intersecting racial and gender oppression among Black women. Additionally, psychologists may discuss racial socialization practices in therapeutic work with families, highlighting the importance of acknowledging how issues of racial injustice and police brutality impact Black women and men. It is essential to address the unfortunate realities of racial injustice for both Black boys and girls, providing clear communication that the lives of Black women and girls are valued equally with men and boys.


Racism at 40mph: Driving While Black and Female

Dr. Jameca Falconer

Jameca Falconer, Ph.D., Director of Counseling and Psychological Services | Logan University

Recent events, including the shooting death of Michael Brown, a young unarmed African American man in Ferguson, Missouri have re-awakened our nation to the continuing problem of race-based violence and racial profiling across the United States. These painful events brought needed national attention to the ongoing problems and complex inter-relationships of race and violence in this country. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) defines racial profiling as a form of discrimination adding that discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion or nationality undermines our basic human rights.

Nowhere is this racial profiling more evident than in the driving/traffic ticket arena. Many American drivers get pulled over for traffic violations every day of the week, but it’s important to examine who is getting pulled over and why. A suburban Detroit police officer was recently seen on dash-cam video dragging a Black man (Floyd Dent) from his car during a traffic stop and kicking and punching him repeatedly. Recent Justice Department statistics suggest that a Black driver is about 31 percent more likely to be pulled over than a White driver or about 23 percent more likely than a Hispanic driver. In addition, Black drivers are more than twice as likely to be subject to police searches as White drivers; and they are nearly twice as likely to not be given any reason for the traffic stop ( Thus, “Driving while Black” is, undeniably, a measurable phenomenon.

I can recount the numerous times that I’ve been stopped by the police in my car or followed in the store. One incident stands out in my mind. It occurred in the spring of 1993 as I was driving home from college. I was stopped by the police for speeding. However, a second police car was called to the scene and if that wasn’t enough, they called for the drug search dogs. Why? I guess because an African American female college student looks suspiciously like someone who would be transporting kilos of cocaine through Louisiana. Nevertheless, they found nothing and I was released without even a speeding ticket. Why? Apparently I had not been speeding after all.

So what happens when a person has been a victim of racial profiling? Speaking from personal experience, as a victim, I felt helpless, violated and angry. Victims of race-based profiling or discrimination know that they have suffered, yet they incur further psychological damage because the discrimination goes unacknowledged.

Patterns of racial profiling have a severe poisonous effect on the self-esteem of minority individuals who understand that they are often seen as unwelcome in this post-racial American climate. It begs the question, how do we put an end to this type of discrimination? Here are six steps to get this country moving in the right direction.

  1. Promotion of a sense of individual responsibility and “speaking out” against racism. Observers and bystanders must not be silent.
  2. Confrontation by the majority group (i.e., White Americans) and an exploration of the effects of these prejudices on minority groups. The majority’s role in minority problems must be actively examined and acknowledged.
  3. Begin a national conversation about race, violence, and the related unresolved traumatic history in our country.
  4. Educate teachers, pastoral care professionals and community group leaders to look for depression and behavioral problems in minority children who have been exposed to racial violence and profiling.
  5. Train law enforcement personnel in sensitivity to the psychological vulnerability of minority populations and urban communities.
  6. Examine state and local laws to see if they are designed to promote dialogue rather than to encourage violent confrontation.